Friday, May 22, 2020

How A Wild Tongue By Gloria Anzaldua And How Soccer...

Title Throughout the years many people have experienced where he or she does not fit in a certain type of group or society because they are not accepted through the rest of society. In the short stories, â€Å"How to Tame a wild Tongue by Gloria Anzaldua and â€Å"How Soccer Explains the World: An Unlikely Theory of Globalization† by Franklin Foer both authors talk about how society didn’t accept them because they were different from the â€Å"social norms† through the relationship of the individual and the community. With so many expectations from society the individual feels pressured from the rest of the group because they are different than others. With the pressure from others in the group, the individual becomes different by not acting like themselves just so they can f but the individual sometimes tends to forget what they believe in or even causing equality between each other. In the story â€Å"How to Tame a Wild Tongue†, the author talks about how she felt different from the rest of society because she spoke different than other people in her â€Å"group†. Anzaldua first talks about how she feels she doesn’t feel that she belongs because she isn’t accepted from the group. She tends to change up her language throughout the groups that she interacts with. She spoke eight different languages which were: standard English, working class and slang class, standard Spanish, standard Mexican Spanish, North Mexican dialect, Chicano Spanish, Tex-Mex, and Pachuco. The only place where she feels

Friday, May 8, 2020

Throughout History, The Roles Of Genders Have Acted In

Throughout history, the roles of genders have acted in many different ways. Women seemed to be considered fragile, while men were the strong and emotionless. Coming into the light in the 1920’s was Ernest Hemingway’s novel that switched these positions. Hemingway displayed gender roles in The Sun also Rises in a cunning new way. The traditional ways of the 1920’s for men and women were incorporated into his novel making the reversed roles more realistic to his readers. From the beginning to the end of the novel, Hemingway included points that challenged the stereotypical roles of men and women. To start the novel, Jake Barnes begins to describe Robert Cohn and his time as a â€Å"Middleweight Boxing Champion.† Even though this position can be†¦show more content†¦Jake not only indicates that him and Brett could have been good together, he also speaks for all of the characters in the sense that everyone has their dreams that can not be fulfilled. The best any of them could do was indulge in their fantasies. Not only does Hemingway show the reversed roles of the character’s mentally, but he also shows it by the way of their actions and physical appearance. When Brett was first introduced in the novel, she came into a club with a group of homosexual men. Other than the fact that homosexuals were considered odd and unethical in the 1920’s, Jake felt uncomfortable by their presence. The matter of Jake being unable to reproduce and these men who were obviously capable of such an activity but refused to use it in that way made Jake insecure and weaker in his own mind. According to Dana Fore (2010), â€Å"...Jake will never achieve the psychological stability he craves because...his injury-and other ideas, in turn, will always leave him vulnerable to the fear that he will ‘degenerate’ into an invalid or a ‘pervert’.†Along with the fact she was in the company of these men, she was dres sed in a very non-traditional way. Hemingway stated in chapter 3, Jake Barnes described Brett as, â€Å"...damn good-looking. She wore a slipover jersey....her hair was brushed back like a boy’s,† (p.30). Many ways that Jake had described Brett were expressing how she did not have the typical looks of a traditional woman, butShow MoreRelatedWomen s Influence On The Formation Of The New Land971 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout history men have been conquers, captains, leaders, kings, and have left a print in history. On the other hand, women are depicted as weak and fragile, unable to fend for themselves. According to society women need a strong masculine man to protect and provide for them. What if I told all that could’ve been different in a new world where women and men could be free, own land, and practice any religion, would you go? Many European settlers fled England with hopes to break free from traditionRead MoreGender Roles And Inequality During The 21st Century Essay1425 Words   |  6 PagesIn context of today, gender roles and inequality is controversial and has sparked numerous social debates across the world. However, the role of gender has not just become an issues in the 21st century but in truth has been affecting the lives of men and woman for hundreds of years. During the renaissance when Saint Teresa lived, woman’s role in the functioning of society were often either forgotten or dismissed as their voice was significantly less powerful then a man’s say. Woman were often consideredRead MoreThe Evolution Of Marriage : Private Relationship Or Pubic Policy1668 Words   |  7 Pageslegal restrictions, and public policy come into effect. As gender equality has transformed throughout history, the integration of these changing roles may be responsible for the shift in marital roles. The question is not if marriage is in flux, but rather is the traditional hierarchical marriage structure sustainable in our culture of increasing gender equality. Nancy Cott, a legal historian and a feminist, examines the political history of marriage in America arguing that the institution of marriageRead MoreThe Female Combat Pilots Of The Soviet Union s Air Force During World War II Essay1664 Words   |  7 Pagesmeets the war on the eastern front at an intersection of women s history, military history, and Soviet social history. Wings, Women, and War is the first scholarly survey of this topic, and it covers these units formation, training, performance, and post-war demobilization. The book s foreword author, eastern front historian John Erikson called it a behavioral, institutional, and operational study of women pilots throughout the Second World War. Though at some points Pennington strugglesRead More`` Revolutionary Mothers `` By Carol Berkin1194 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Revolutionary Mothers† is a book written by Carol Berkin in 2005. The book mainly focuses women roles throughout the American Upheaval period. The pur pose of writing this book was to help the reader to not only understand these roles but also apprehend the social/cultural norms throughout the struggle of America’s Independence period (Berkin 11). Berkin begins with a brief analysis of the cultural and social norms of women during the American Revolution era. Berkin then examines the way this eraRead MoreQuestions On Inequalities Of Gender Inequality1625 Words   |  7 PagesInequalities of Gender 1. Discuss the various forms of Gender inequality 2. Choose and discuss two theoretical perspectives used to analyze gender inequality 3. Make sure to compare the perspectives and choose which one you align yourself with Kerbo (1994) refer to gender as the socially constructed definition of what it mean to be female or male. Sex and gender are two separate terms. Sex refers to the biological characteristics. However, gender is completely different. Gender is socially constructedRead MoreThe Witch Craze Of The Sixteenth And Seventeenth Centuries1109 Words   |  5 PagesGender, race, age, and ability have been used to shape the history and our understanding of human sexuality, as well as how certain groups, specifically marginalized groups, were seen as degenerate or delinquent people. When examining why and how specific groups of people were though of as being sexual delinquents, it is important to use an intersectional lens, and consider how these different categories and identities of gender, race, age, and ability work together to form experiences and opinionsRead MoreGender Diversity In Canada778 Words   |  4 PagesPaul Tasker published on CBC in December 2017 talks about Justin Trudeauâ₠¬â„¢s decision to appoint two new female judges. Mary Jane McCallum was elected to represent Manitoba in the chamber while Mary Coyle will represent Nova Scotia. Both of the women have been involved in careers focused on helping disadvantaged groups of people for example Mary McCullum is a social justice advocate and is known for her work with the aboriginal communities in Manitoba. Nova Scotia senators Mary Coyle is known for herRead MoreThe Women s Suffrage By Susan B. Anthony1195 Words   |  5 Pagescitizen. Throughout American history gender inequality has been a prevalent, ongoing, concern. Sherna Berger Gluck’s novel, From Parlor to Prison, is a collection of stories from five American suffragists depicting their lives while working towards passing the 19th Amendment. Gluck transcribes the stories of Sylvie Thygeson, Jessie Haver Butler, Miriam Allen deFord, Laura Ellsworth Seiler, and Ernestine Hara Ketter and their unique contribution to history. Together these five women acted and contributedRead MoreEliza Gamble s Supremacy Of The Male1085 Words   |  5 Pagesultimately superior over woman. Women have basic functions and characteristics as dictated by nature through evolution. Women are capable of social and emotional intelligence. They also play an important role as human beings and have various characteristics that are represented and essential to mankind. The social roles are an important factor and these issues affect women. The female is represented in the primary source as being inferior to men. They’re also known to have less energy, patience, and less

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

New World of Business Free Essays

The article â€Å"Knowledge Management for the New World of Business† by Yogesh Malhotra discusses the importance of changes, information technologies and innovations as the main drives of business success. The author shows that attitudes towards knowledge management have been changed and nowadays knowledge management offers new ideas and concepts how to make business successful, innovative and, what is more important, socially responsible. The paper is retrieved from online database through search engines. We will write a custom essay sample on New World of Business or any similar topic only for you Order Now Despite the paper is online source, the author offers well-supported, well-structured and well-organized study of world business in terms of knowledge management. Further, the paper is directly related with knowledge management filed as the author discusses the importance of knowledge, innovations, information technologies and changes which are known to be key components of knowledge management field. (Malhotra 1998) Malhotra says that today is the era of information technologies being associated with knowledge. The author argues that knowledge is critical source in business activity as it drives company either to success or complete failure.   New technologies as, for example, intranets, data-mining, web-casting and video-conferencing, offer new ways of meeting business challenges in knowledge era. Moreover, information technologies are encouraged by press trade. As a result, information technologies positively contribute business performance. For example, intranets and networks are effective in increasing inherent capabilities to facilitate knowledge management. (Malhotra 1998) Business is experiencing transition from the era of competitive advantage to the era of knowledge creation. Earlier business was characterized by low levels of changes and innovations. However, â€Å"the new world of knowledge-based industries is distinguished by its emphasis on precognition and adaptation in contrast to the traditional emphasis on optimization based on prediction†. (Malhotra 1998) The author argues that knowledge-based business world is characterized by re-definition and re-evaluation of organizational objectives, goals, and missions. Simply saying, the business re-shapes the way of arranging things. Business environment is motivated by radical changes and innovations which â€Å"overwhelm the traditional organizational response of predicting and reacting based on pre-programmed heuristics†. (Malhotra 1998) Modern business world requires anticipatory response, and demands flexibility and resurfacing of old assumptions. Modern world tends not play following predictable rules – instead, it tends to change these rules and to keep changing. As result, new types of organizations have emerged: business ecosystems and virtual corporations. (Malhotra 1998) The author offers his own definition of knowledge management for a new business world and stresses that new definition should go beyond quick and predictable views of many others. Instead, definition should move executives, managers and common employees to think strategically and critically about the purpose of knowledge management. Malhotra says that knowledge managements is critical to organizational adaptation and survival as it drives and monitors environmental changes. Knowledge management â€Å"embodies organizational processes that seek synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of information technologies, and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings†. (Malhotra 1998) Nevertheless, one problem exists as there is confusion between the terms ‘knowledge’ and ‘information’. The author claims that these notions are distinct entities as information is generated by computer systems and human interpretation of actions, whereas knowledge is of subjective nature. Malhotra recommends business managers to realize that knowledge is imbedded in them and the process of knowledge acquiring is social interactions. It is emphasized that knowledge creation depends solely on human beings as computers are only tools with information-gathering capabilities. New world of business is defined as wicked environment which requires interpretations of information and knowledge. (Malhotra 1998) One more positive moment in the article is that the author offers recommendations how to incorporate knowledge management in business activities. Firstly, it is necessary to refuse to control employees and their behaviors through setting predictable and pre-defined objectives and procedures. Instead, it would be better to create organization being capable of constructing diverse meanings. Secondly, the author recommends re-evaluating companies ideas how to arrange things and practices. Executive managers should consider dynamically changing business environment, as well as external and internal threats.   Thirdly, it is effective to invest in â€Å"multiple and diverse interpretations to enable constructive conflict mode of inquiry and, thus, lessen oversimplification of issues or premature decision closure†. (Malhotra 1998) Summing up, new business world offers new opportunities of success and knowledge plays crucial role in this process. New strategies are to encourage human imagination and creativity to promote internal diversity and to meet the needs and demands of the wicked environment.   Knowledge management makes companies and organizations re-think and re-evaluate their goals and practices, as well as use the power of knowledge in finding new ways of improving business performance. (Malhotra 1998) Works Cited Malhotra, Yogesh. 1998. Knowledge Management for the New World of Business. Available at http://www.brint.com/km/whatis.htm.   Accessed March 15, 2008. How to cite New World of Business, Essay examples New World of Business Free Essays The article â€Å"Knowledge Management for the New World of Business† by Yogesh Malhotra discusses the importance of changes, information technologies and innovations as the main drives of business success. The author shows that attitudes towards knowledge management have been changed and nowadays knowledge management offers new ideas and concepts how to make business successful, innovative and, what is more important, socially responsible. The paper is retrieved from online database through search engines. We will write a custom essay sample on New World of Business or any similar topic only for you Order Now Despite the paper is online source, the author offers well-supported, well-structured and well-organized study of world business in terms of knowledge management. Further, the paper is directly related with knowledge management filed as the author discusses the importance of knowledge, innovations, information technologies and changes which are known to be key components of knowledge management field. (Malhotra 1998) Malhotra says that today is the era of information technologies being associated with knowledge. The author argues that knowledge is critical source in business activity as it drives company either to success or complete failure.   New technologies as, for example, intranets, data-mining, web-casting and video-conferencing, offer new ways of meeting business challenges in knowledge era. Moreover, information technologies are encouraged by press trade. As a result, information technologies positively contribute business performance. For example, intranets and networks are effective in increasing inherent capabilities to facilitate knowledge management. (Malhotra 1998) Business is experiencing transition from the era of competitive advantage to the era of knowledge creation. Earlier business was characterized by low levels of changes and innovations. However, â€Å"the new world of knowledge-based industries is distinguished by its emphasis on precognition and adaptation in contrast to the traditional emphasis on optimization based on prediction†. (Malhotra 1998) The author argues that knowledge-based business world is characterized by re-definition and re-evaluation of organizational objectives, goals, and missions. Simply saying, the business re-shapes the way of arranging things. Business environment is motivated by radical changes and innovations which â€Å"overwhelm the traditional organizational response of predicting and reacting based on pre-programmed heuristics†. (Malhotra 1998) Modern business world requires anticipatory response, and demands flexibility and resurfacing of old assumptions. Modern world tends not play following predictable rules – instead, it tends to change these rules and to keep changing. As result, new types of organizations have emerged: business ecosystems and virtual corporations. (Malhotra 1998) The author offers his own definition of knowledge management for a new business world and stresses that new definition should go beyond quick and predictable views of many others. Instead, definition should move executives, managers and common employees to think strategically and critically about the purpose of knowledge management. Malhotra says that knowledge managements is critical to organizational adaptation and survival as it drives and monitors environmental changes. Knowledge management â€Å"embodies organizational processes that seek synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of information technologies, and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings†. (Malhotra 1998) Nevertheless, one problem exists as there is confusion between the terms ‘knowledge’ and ‘information’. The author claims that these notions are distinct entities as information is generated by computer systems and human interpretation of actions, whereas knowledge is of subjective nature. Malhotra recommends business managers to realize that knowledge is imbedded in them and the process of knowledge acquiring is social interactions. It is emphasized that knowledge creation depends solely on human beings as computers are only tools with information-gathering capabilities. New world of business is defined as wicked environment which requires interpretations of information and knowledge. (Malhotra 1998) One more positive moment in the article is that the author offers recommendations how to incorporate knowledge management in business activities. Firstly, it is necessary to refuse to control employees and their behaviors through setting predictable and pre-defined objectives and procedures. Instead, it would be better to create organization being capable of constructing diverse meanings. Secondly, the author recommends re-evaluating companies ideas how to arrange things and practices. Executive managers should consider dynamically changing business environment, as well as external and internal threats.   Thirdly, it is effective to invest in â€Å"multiple and diverse interpretations to enable constructive conflict mode of inquiry and, thus, lessen oversimplification of issues or premature decision closure†. (Malhotra 1998) Summing up, new business world offers new opportunities of success and knowledge plays crucial role in this process. New strategies are to encourage human imagination and creativity to promote internal diversity and to meet the needs and demands of the wicked environment.   Knowledge management makes companies and organizations re-think and re-evaluate their goals and practices, as well as use the power of knowledge in finding new ways of improving business performance. (Malhotra 1998) Works Cited Malhotra, Yogesh. 1998. Knowledge Management for the New World of Business. Available at http://www.brint.com/km/whatis.htm.   Accessed March 15, 2008. How to cite New World of Business, Essay examples

New World of Business Free Essays

The article â€Å"Knowledge Management for the New World of Business† by Yogesh Malhotra discusses the importance of changes, information technologies and innovations as the main drives of business success. The author shows that attitudes towards knowledge management have been changed and nowadays knowledge management offers new ideas and concepts how to make business successful, innovative and, what is more important, socially responsible. The paper is retrieved from online database through search engines. We will write a custom essay sample on New World of Business or any similar topic only for you Order Now Despite the paper is online source, the author offers well-supported, well-structured and well-organized study of world business in terms of knowledge management. Further, the paper is directly related with knowledge management filed as the author discusses the importance of knowledge, innovations, information technologies and changes which are known to be key components of knowledge management field. (Malhotra 1998) Malhotra says that today is the era of information technologies being associated with knowledge. The author argues that knowledge is critical source in business activity as it drives company either to success or complete failure.   New technologies as, for example, intranets, data-mining, web-casting and video-conferencing, offer new ways of meeting business challenges in knowledge era. Moreover, information technologies are encouraged by press trade. As a result, information technologies positively contribute business performance. For example, intranets and networks are effective in increasing inherent capabilities to facilitate knowledge management. (Malhotra 1998) Business is experiencing transition from the era of competitive advantage to the era of knowledge creation. Earlier business was characterized by low levels of changes and innovations. However, â€Å"the new world of knowledge-based industries is distinguished by its emphasis on precognition and adaptation in contrast to the traditional emphasis on optimization based on prediction†. (Malhotra 1998) The author argues that knowledge-based business world is characterized by re-definition and re-evaluation of organizational objectives, goals, and missions. Simply saying, the business re-shapes the way of arranging things. Business environment is motivated by radical changes and innovations which â€Å"overwhelm the traditional organizational response of predicting and reacting based on pre-programmed heuristics†. (Malhotra 1998) Modern business world requires anticipatory response, and demands flexibility and resurfacing of old assumptions. Modern world tends not play following predictable rules – instead, it tends to change these rules and to keep changing. As result, new types of organizations have emerged: business ecosystems and virtual corporations. (Malhotra 1998) The author offers his own definition of knowledge management for a new business world and stresses that new definition should go beyond quick and predictable views of many others. Instead, definition should move executives, managers and common employees to think strategically and critically about the purpose of knowledge management. Malhotra says that knowledge managements is critical to organizational adaptation and survival as it drives and monitors environmental changes. Knowledge management â€Å"embodies organizational processes that seek synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of information technologies, and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings†. (Malhotra 1998) Nevertheless, one problem exists as there is confusion between the terms ‘knowledge’ and ‘information’. The author claims that these notions are distinct entities as information is generated by computer systems and human interpretation of actions, whereas knowledge is of subjective nature. Malhotra recommends business managers to realize that knowledge is imbedded in them and the process of knowledge acquiring is social interactions. It is emphasized that knowledge creation depends solely on human beings as computers are only tools with information-gathering capabilities. New world of business is defined as wicked environment which requires interpretations of information and knowledge. (Malhotra 1998) One more positive moment in the article is that the author offers recommendations how to incorporate knowledge management in business activities. Firstly, it is necessary to refuse to control employees and their behaviors through setting predictable and pre-defined objectives and procedures. Instead, it would be better to create organization being capable of constructing diverse meanings. Secondly, the author recommends re-evaluating companies ideas how to arrange things and practices. Executive managers should consider dynamically changing business environment, as well as external and internal threats.   Thirdly, it is effective to invest in â€Å"multiple and diverse interpretations to enable constructive conflict mode of inquiry and, thus, lessen oversimplification of issues or premature decision closure†. (Malhotra 1998) Summing up, new business world offers new opportunities of success and knowledge plays crucial role in this process. New strategies are to encourage human imagination and creativity to promote internal diversity and to meet the needs and demands of the wicked environment.   Knowledge management makes companies and organizations re-think and re-evaluate their goals and practices, as well as use the power of knowledge in finding new ways of improving business performance. (Malhotra 1998) Works Cited Malhotra, Yogesh. 1998. Knowledge Management for the New World of Business. Available at http://www.brint.com/km/whatis.htm.   Accessed March 15, 2008. How to cite New World of Business, Essay examples New World of Business Free Essays The article â€Å"Knowledge Management for the New World of Business† by Yogesh Malhotra discusses the importance of changes, information technologies and innovations as the main drives of business success. The author shows that attitudes towards knowledge management have been changed and nowadays knowledge management offers new ideas and concepts how to make business successful, innovative and, what is more important, socially responsible. The paper is retrieved from online database through search engines. We will write a custom essay sample on New World of Business or any similar topic only for you Order Now Despite the paper is online source, the author offers well-supported, well-structured and well-organized study of world business in terms of knowledge management. Further, the paper is directly related with knowledge management filed as the author discusses the importance of knowledge, innovations, information technologies and changes which are known to be key components of knowledge management field. (Malhotra 1998) Malhotra says that today is the era of information technologies being associated with knowledge. The author argues that knowledge is critical source in business activity as it drives company either to success or complete failure.   New technologies as, for example, intranets, data-mining, web-casting and video-conferencing, offer new ways of meeting business challenges in knowledge era. Moreover, information technologies are encouraged by press trade. As a result, information technologies positively contribute business performance. For example, intranets and networks are effective in increasing inherent capabilities to facilitate knowledge management. (Malhotra 1998) Business is experiencing transition from the era of competitive advantage to the era of knowledge creation. Earlier business was characterized by low levels of changes and innovations. However, â€Å"the new world of knowledge-based industries is distinguished by its emphasis on precognition and adaptation in contrast to the traditional emphasis on optimization based on prediction†. (Malhotra 1998) The author argues that knowledge-based business world is characterized by re-definition and re-evaluation of organizational objectives, goals, and missions. Simply saying, the business re-shapes the way of arranging things. Business environment is motivated by radical changes and innovations which â€Å"overwhelm the traditional organizational response of predicting and reacting based on pre-programmed heuristics†. (Malhotra 1998) Modern business world requires anticipatory response, and demands flexibility and resurfacing of old assumptions. Modern world tends not play following predictable rules – instead, it tends to change these rules and to keep changing. As result, new types of organizations have emerged: business ecosystems and virtual corporations. (Malhotra 1998) The author offers his own definition of knowledge management for a new business world and stresses that new definition should go beyond quick and predictable views of many others. Instead, definition should move executives, managers and common employees to think strategically and critically about the purpose of knowledge management. Malhotra says that knowledge managements is critical to organizational adaptation and survival as it drives and monitors environmental changes. Knowledge management â€Å"embodies organizational processes that seek synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of information technologies, and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings†. (Malhotra 1998) Nevertheless, one problem exists as there is confusion between the terms ‘knowledge’ and ‘information’. The author claims that these notions are distinct entities as information is generated by computer systems and human interpretation of actions, whereas knowledge is of subjective nature. Malhotra recommends business managers to realize that knowledge is imbedded in them and the process of knowledge acquiring is social interactions. It is emphasized that knowledge creation depends solely on human beings as computers are only tools with information-gathering capabilities. New world of business is defined as wicked environment which requires interpretations of information and knowledge. (Malhotra 1998) One more positive moment in the article is that the author offers recommendations how to incorporate knowledge management in business activities. Firstly, it is necessary to refuse to control employees and their behaviors through setting predictable and pre-defined objectives and procedures. Instead, it would be better to create organization being capable of constructing diverse meanings. Secondly, the author recommends re-evaluating companies ideas how to arrange things and practices. Executive managers should consider dynamically changing business environment, as well as external and internal threats.   Thirdly, it is effective to invest in â€Å"multiple and diverse interpretations to enable constructive conflict mode of inquiry and, thus, lessen oversimplification of issues or premature decision closure†. (Malhotra 1998) Summing up, new business world offers new opportunities of success and knowledge plays crucial role in this process. New strategies are to encourage human imagination and creativity to promote internal diversity and to meet the needs and demands of the wicked environment.   Knowledge management makes companies and organizations re-think and re-evaluate their goals and practices, as well as use the power of knowledge in finding new ways of improving business performance. (Malhotra 1998) Works Cited Malhotra, Yogesh. 1998. Knowledge Management for the New World of Business. Available at http://www.brint.com/km/whatis.htm.   Accessed March 15, 2008. How to cite New World of Business, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The atmosphere in Macbeth is one of nightmare and evil Essay Example

The atmosphere in Macbeth is one of nightmare and evil Essay By close reference to incident and language comment on and illustrate the truth of this statement. Macbeth is a story of honour, betrayal, treachery, greed, power and most importantly evil. The story is a tragedy, which from the start indicates there will not be many happy moments or joking. It is the story of a man corrupted by evil, (and his wife! ), and driven by his greed for success. There is murder and bloodshed throughout the play and its dark imagery portrays a disturbing image of those hungry for power. The atmosphere of the play is tense from the very first scene as we see three `weird sisters gathered together. This part of the play is set on a moor, which is a wasteland area. The weather also plays an important part in setting the scene and atmosphere; there is thunder and lightning. The setting of the moor and the stormy weather give an image of a deserted place in the middle of nowhere, giving a feeling of deep tension and anticipation to find out what is happening. In this scene, the language the witches use also makes them appear to be associated with evil, I come, Graymalkin! his is one of the witches answering what appears to be a call from someone or something, most probably from the underworld. We will write a custom essay sample on The atmosphere in Macbeth is one of nightmare and evil specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The atmosphere in Macbeth is one of nightmare and evil specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The atmosphere in Macbeth is one of nightmare and evil specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Graymalkin is a grey cat, in the Elizabethan times cats were considered to be animals that were evil, they were usually associated with witches so the fact that the witches in the play are going when `Graymalkin calls makes them seem to be part of an evil or dark way of life. In the second scene of the first act there are not many pieces of text that can be interpreted into evil but there are lines of the play that do give us an impression of the lead character. This scene is set just fter a huge battle that took place in Scotland. A sergeant is describing to King Duncan how Scotland won the battle, he tells of the bravery of Macbeth and Banquo, two best friends and fighting partners, and how the increasing number of the enemy did not daunt them. Imagery of the battle is described to the King and the gory ways in which Macbeth killed the enemy are used, Till he unseamd him from the nave to the chaps, And fixd his head upon our battlements. Act 1 Scene 3 returns to the witches again and is a very dark scene. It opens with the witches gathering once more and telling ach other of the separate activities they have been up to. One witch told the others she had been killing swine, which doesnt give pleasant thoughts about these `women. The next story they tell shows a certain ruthlessness about the witches and shows they can be spiteful and vindictive over the most ridiculous things. They plan on drowning a sailor because his wife refused to give one of the witches a chestnut. When Macbeth and Banquo enter this scene the dark atmosphere is heightened by the witches as they gather around and start chanting, this would be quite confusing for the two friends and their puzzlement hows, What are these, So witherd and so wild in their attire, that look not like the inhabitants o the earth and yet are on `t? The witches then associate themselves with evil as they prophecies the futures of the two men, this scares Macbeth because they know who he is and their supernatural powers worry him. Further references to the witches in this scene by Banquo show that he believes they are part of something dark and evil. He calls the witches `instruments of darkness and when the first prophecy for Macbeth comes true he says, What! Can the devil speak true? In the fourth scene of the first act Macbeths downward spiral into a world of dark and evil and an atmosphere of shadow and mystery is present as Macbeth gives a small insight into his mind. He seems worried about the thoughts he has after the announcement that Malcolm, Duncans son will become heir to the throne. The idea of murder is playing on his mind and he seems unwilling to let those thoughts come through, Let not light see my black and deep desires. The dark side of Macbeth is fully released once Lady Macbeth is introduced into the play. In the letter she is reading from Macbeth e calls her his ` dearest partner in greatness. This certainly is the case near the beginning of the play as she is the most influential person in Macbeths life and the main reason for his downfall, but later on in the play she fades away with every passing moment and she seems tortured and tormented by what she has done until her ultimate demise. At this point, however, she knows that Macbeth will not consider taking the quickest way to the throne and so follows a very dark passage in which she calls upon demons and spirits to make her ruthless enough to drive Macbeth, Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts! Unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full of direst cruelty. Straight after this scene we are presented with a great contrast as Duncan and his servants arrive at Macbeths castle. They talk of how pleasant the air is and how the castle is in a good location. To emphasise the darkness of the characters Macbeth and Lady Macbeth and what they plan on doing Duncan talks of how a house martin, a bird that normally nests in churches, approves of the castle because of its pleasant singing. This is a very ironic scene that heightens the atmosphere greatly. When Macbeth finally allows himself to think of the murdering of Duncan he has visions of how everyone would react to the death of their `Saintly king and realises that by killing him he would take a step up but this act of treachery would lead to his ultimate fall. This is a powerful scene that shows that Macbeth does have a conscience and a great sense of rationality. Sadly for Macbeth he was also greatly nai ve and he allowed himself to be corrupted by the nearly demonic Lady Macbeth as she curses him with all her effort and questions his manhood. She shows how cruel she would be by escribing the sickening things she would do for power, I have given suck, and know how tender `tis to love the babe that milks me: I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have pluckd my nipple from his boneless gums, And dashd his brains out, Had I so sworn as you to have done this. This is quite a disturbing and memorable image to that gives a great idea of what Lady Macbeths lust for power has driven her to. In the second act there is a great atmosphere of tension as anticipation to Duncans murder grows. Banquo seems on edge, similarly, so does Macbeth. The witches prophecies seem to have been n the minds of both men and has driven the two best friends apart. They both seem wary of each other and when in conversation it is very brief, with short answers and questions asked my both men. There is a bitter irony in this scene as Banquo hands over a gift from Duncan to Macbeth for Lady Macbeth; Duncan gives the diamond to Lady Macbeth with the name, `most kind hostess, not knowing it was she who planned his murder. Macbeths image of a good and honourable man is finally killed off in this part of the play as he prepares himself for the murder of Duncan. As Macbeth speaks to himself he uses dark and evil language that, ombined with his lack of sorrow and lack of compassion increases the sense of evil in the play up to this point. Macbeth is so engrossed with his search for power that he has visions of a dagger leading him to Duncans room and he shows some sort of sense of wicked humour when the signal bell is sounded. I go, and it is done; the bell invites me. Hear it not Duncan; for it is a knell that summons thee to heaven, or to hell. The atmosphere and sense of evil are made more so by the nest scene between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. He still has blood on him from the murder of Duncan, which indicates the gruesome task he has erformed and leaves evidence of the crime that will haunt Lady Macbeth, at least, for the rest of the play. Macbeth lets the initial weakness he had come through again when he shows remorse for what he had done but this human side of him is quickly dismissed by Lady Macbeth whose ruthless ability allows her to take control of the situation. In any tragedy the atmosphere is bound to be very dark and frightful at times and Macbeth is no exception. The evil has been increasing rapidly with each passing scene and a welcome break in the play offers some amusing parts and allows the atmosphere to decrease lightly so everyone is not constantly tense and on the edge. After the short break from all the tension Duncans murdered body is then discovered and there is a frantic rush in the scene whilst everyone panics and are confused. Many people suspect Macbeth already for the murder. To make the murder seem like a totally unnatural occurrence of life there is a scene in which an Old Man talks to Ross. They discuss strange events that took place on the night of the murder and a part of Elizabethan superstition comes into play when the strange behaviour in the animal world is linked with the errible disaster in the human world. Tis unnatural, Even like the deed thats done. On Tuesday last, A falcon, towering in her pride of place, Was by a mousing owl hawkd at and killd. This is just one of the strange stories that make the murder of Duncan seem more unnatural and evil. Also, it was said that Duncans horses ate each other, which is a sickly thought to behold. After the murder of Duncan there is an air of suspicion surrounding Macbeth and he can sense that so he feels he must start abusing the power bestowed upon him by killing off anyone he feels is a threat to him. Macbeth seems to have lost control of all reasoning he may have once had and decides to try and kill off Banquo, at one time his best friend, and Banquos son, Fleance. This would end the prophecy the witches Banquo was told by the witches, as he would have no descendants who could be King if Macbeth killed him and his son. This plan of Macbeths shows how ruthless he can be and is no longer dependent on the leadership of his wife, who is sinking into a deeper depression and is going slowly going mental because she cant cope with what she has done. The play has a very dark feel to it now and there is no turning back or Macbeth. His character has changed into a power monger surrounded by his yes men and servants. He is desperate to know more about what the future holds for him and so he goes back to the witches. Macbeth demands they show him his future and he likes what he is told. The witches tell him that he has no need to fear any man woman born. This is a twisted truth though as we find out later when it is revealed Macduff was caesarean born. This meeting with the witches is a particularly dark scene with lots of other half-truths told to Macbeth by the witches. After this part of the play follows one of the most brutal acts Macbeth has ordered. This part may well be the darkest and most evil act in the play. After Ross has left Lady Macduff she is with her son. This is a warm family scene of tenderness between mother and son as she tries to explain about his father. Just then a messenger comes in to try and warn Lady Macduff that danger is approaching but the warning is t00 late as a murderer comes in and kills the child. This brutal act shows how far Macbeth is prepared to go and makes him appear to be a man to be taken seriously. This scene not only increase Macbeths image, it also increases the depths of dark and evil the lay has gone into and at this point the atmosphere is very heavy as the audience prepare for the final stages of the play. The final scene that contains any real parts of the past evil goings on is act 5 scene 1 in which we see Lady Macbeth being observed by a doctor and a gentlewoman. Lady Macbeth has been under a lot of stress and pressure and the deadly deeds she has been parts of finally caught up with her and have caused her to walk and talk in her sleep. She once declared that, A little water will clear us of this deed. When talking to Macbeth about the blood on him from Duncans murder. However, in her sleep she ays, All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. She is reliving the murder of Duncan and cannot function properly. The evil spirits she once called upon to make her ruthless now seem to have abandoned her and she cannot cope with what has gone on in her life. Shortly after this the final battle is played out and Macbeth realises he cannot win once he finds out how Macduff was born, yet he refuses to give in and goes into the fight at least trying to keep what little dignity and respect he may have. Once Macbeth is killed it lifts all the tension out of the play and the restoration of ormal ways seems to be in place. The dark and evil days of Scotland are behind it and so are the days of reign by the tyrannous Macbeth. The life of a man who was once honourable is over and so dies with him the pain and suffering he has caused the people who were around him. Macbeth was a man corrupted by his greed and the drive of his wife, he knew before he murdered by Duncan he would fall afterwards yet he still allowed himself to continue what he didnt want to do because of Lady Macbeths convincing speeches that made him feel worthless and useless for being a good man.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Bald Eagle Facts

Bald Eagle Facts For centuries, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was a spiritual symbol for the native people who lived in the United States. In 1782, it was nominated as the national emblem of the U.S., but it nearly became extinct during the 1970s due to illegal hunting and the effects of DDT poisoning. Recovery efforts and stronger federal protection helped ensure that this large raptor is no longer endangered and continues to make a strong comeback. Fast Facts: The Bald Eagle Scientific Name: Haliaeetus leucocephalusCommon Names: Bald Eagle, Eagle, American Bald EagleBasic Animal Group: BirdSize: 35–42 inches longWingspan:  5.9–7.5 feetWeight: 6.6–14  poundsLifespan: 20 years (in the wild)Diet: CarnivoreHabitat: large, open lakes and rivers in the United States and Canada, particularly in  Florida, Alaska and  the MidwestPopulation: 700,000Conservation Status:  Least Concern Description The bald eagles head may appear bald, but its actually covered in white feathers. Indeed, its name is actually derived  from an older name and meaning of white-headed. The bald heads of mature bald eagles contrast sharply with their chocolate brown bodies. They have a very large, yellow, thick bill with an upper  mandible  that is strongly hooked. The bird is generally 35 to 42 inches long with a wingspan that can grow to 7 feet or more. The head, neck, and tail of bald eagles are bright, plain white, but younger birds may show spotting. Their eyes, bill, legs, and feet are yellow, and their black  talons  are thick and powerful. Buck Shreck/Getty Images Habitat and Range The bald eagles range spans from Mexico to most of Canada and it includes all of the continental U.S. They can be found in all kinds of habitats, from the bayous of Louisiana to the deserts of California to the deciduous forests of New England. It is the only sea eagle that is endemic (native) to North America. Diet and Behavior Bald eagles eat fish- and anything and everything else- but fish make up the majority of their diet. The birds have also been known to eat other water birds such as grebes, herons, ducks, coots, geese, and egrets, as well as mammals such as rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, muskrats, and even deer fawns. Turtles, terrapins, snakes, and crabs as make for tasty bald eagle snacks as well. Bald eagles have also been known to steal prey from other predators (a practice known as kleptoparasitism), to scavenge carcasses of other animals, and to steal food from landfills or campsites.  In other words, if a bald eagle can grab it in its talons, it will eat it. Reproduction and Offspring Bald eagles mate from late September to early April, depending on the region. The female lays her first egg five to 10 days after mating and incubates the eggs for about 35 days. They produce one to three eggs, which is called the clutch size. When first hatched, bald eagle chicks are covered with fluffy white down but quickly grow larger and develop mature feathers. Juvenile birds have mottled brown and white  plumage  and do not get the distinctive white head and tail until they are 4 to 5 years old when they are sexually mature and able to mate. Marcia Straub/Getty Images Threats Bald eagles today are threatened by poaching and accidental or deliberate shootings, as well as other risks to  raptors  including pollution, collisions with wind turbines or power lines, contamination of their food supplies and habitat loss.  Lead poisoning  from fishing lures and discarded bullet casings is also a grave threat to bald eagles and other large raptors. Conservation Status The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists the bald eagles conservation status as least concern and says its population is increasing. However, bald eagles were severely affected by pesticides, especially DDT, which was widely used after World War II. The once-touted pesticide poisoned bald eagles and caused their eggshells to become thin, resulting in many failed nesting attempts, according to the California Department of Fish and Wildlife. As a result of their dwindling numbers, the bald eagle was placed on the federal list of endangered species in 1967 and the California endangered species list in 1971. However, after the use of DDT was banned in the United States in 1972, strong efforts to restore these birds were successful and the bald eagle was removed from the endangered species list in 2007. Sources â€Å"Bald Eagle Overview, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology.†Ã‚  Overview, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology.â€Å"Bald Eagle.†Ã‚  National Geographic, 21 Sept. 2018.â€Å"Bald Eagles in California. California Department of Fish and Wildlife.â€Å"Basic Facts About Bald Eagles.†Ã‚  Defenders of Wildlife, 10 Jan. 2019.â€Å"The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.†Ã‚  IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Alexamara Marine Group Case database management - Smart Custom Writing Samples

Alexamara Marine Group Case database management - Smart Custom Writing Globalization and Information Technology on the Computer IndustryAbstract The benefits of the effects of globalization have been tremendous over the last thirty years. The emergence of new technologies has brought about efficiency in the research process, production and the distribution of goods and services. Globalization has reduced the cost of communication and interactions between businesses have been made possible. This paper will look into the effects of globalisation in relation to the motor vehicle industry in Japan.   Central to the focus of this paper are the changes that have taken place in the automobile industry in Japan and their underlying causes.   Focus will also be given to how information communication technology has contributed to the restructuring of automobile industry in Japan, and how the industry has over the years responded to globalisation to reach the current position of leadership in the auto industry, bringing immense benefits to society through innovation of quality and affordable automobiles. The paper will address the c hallenges faced in the process of realizing globalization and the possible solutions are recommended. Attention will also be give to the role of government and civil society organizations in the process of globalization. Introduction Globalization refers to is the reduction in the autonomy pf individual states due to the gradual increase in the global interdependence among states, individuals and social economic organizations. The advent of the era of information technology has gradually integrated the nations of the world into the global economy. The rise in globalization is attributable to the spread in the use of information technology networks. The current globalization is driven by knowledge and technology, unlike earlier ones which were based on ideology.   In reference to James (2002), the influence of information technology on globalization takes into account not only the numerous forms of information technology, but also the embodiment of globalization in several dimensions, the most outstanding of which concerns the volume of international trade as a percentage of world output and the extent to which that trade is a component of foreign direct investment, FDI (p.1).   The flow of capital to poorer n ations implies creation of employment and elevation of the standards of living. Before looking at the benefits that society has gained as a result of globalisation, it is imperative that the areas that globalisation has affected the most and the ways in which these effects are manifested be looked into. Kenney and Florida (2004) on the effects of globalisation, state that globalisation can be divided into four major dynamics which include: the globalisation of markets; the globalisation of production; the globalisation of ownership and the globalisation of products (p.55). The globalization of markets refers to access to market that are beyond a corporation’s country of origin, while globalization of production refers to the establishment of production units in other countries other that the country of origin. Globalization of ownership is the ownership of corporations by shareholders from various nations. This is made possible through mergers, acquisitions or takeovers. Globalization fosters the development and spread of technologies, especially information and telecommunication technologies that allow for the free flow of information all over the world. Apparently, globalisation is closely intertwined with international and migration resulting in the transformation of economic relations and structures among and within countries. This interconnection is promoted chiefly by the expansion, rapid spread and use of information technology. According to James (2002), information technology influences international trade and foreign direct investments by reducing the transactional costs, thus leading to the increase in the volume of international transactions, between independent buyers and seller as well as large multinational corporations (p.1). In reference to a World Bank report on globalisation (2009), closely linked globalisation to the spread of democracy and democratic institutions in the world (p.7).   This means that the most competitive shall win. The globalization of market opens doors for competition top set in. those companies that will have superior products can effectively compete with other companies beyond their national boundaries. According to Richard and Florida (2004), the Japanese automakers to penetration of the United States market in the 1960s and 1970s through exports, which coincided with the short-lived rise in gasoline prices, was a remarkable success compared with the low quality Ford’s Pinto and General Motors Vega (p.56). As a result of the new found market I n the United States, motor vehicle production in Japan rose from an insignificant 300, 000 units in 1960 to about eleven million units in 1982, which besides the strengthening Japan’s largely protected domestic market of about 5 million units and exports of about 6 million units, elevated Japan to dominate in world finished vehicle exports by a wide margin (p.57). Japan maintains the lead in the automobile industry due to heavy investme nt in research and development. The quest for global competitiveness will drive corporations to conduct research therefore coming up with superior technologies and innovations that can improve society.   Research Findings and Discussion The Japanese automobile industry became globally competitive due to focus on lean manufacturing and rapid development which producers to achieve high standards of quality with low defects and high output per worker.  Ã‚   The success of Japanese motor vehicles purely rested on their competitive productive system and their attention to quality improvements that involve lower inventories, timely part deliveries, high performance work organization and continuous improvement programs for enhanced quality and productivity. The mass production of quality motor vehicles by Japanese automakers ensured that the society enjoys the availability and use of quality motor vehicles. The transformation of Japanese automobile industry led to the rise in employment opportunities as well as the product output and the subsequent reinforcement of Japanese national economy. Without globalisation, access to quality vehicles by American society could not have been possible. Competition by manufacturers gives the consumers opportunities to make the best choice of the goods that best meet their needs at a price that they can afford. According to Wagner (2002), globalization required that producers and employees globally were to increasingly compete on globally integrated markets (p.166). As noted earlier one of the ways in which globalization occurs is when multinational companies establish production units outside their countries of origin. Following the three year domestic sales slump that the Japanese automobile market experienced in the early 1990s, the industry had to come up with a new strategic response through restructuring and rationalization. This scenario presented a striking contrast, since the Japanese industry was known to be competitive and had posted a continued rise in profits from the 1980s. According to shimokawa (2010) the profits had fallen by half in most of the firms and others recorded even lower profits. Additionally, one of the factors that contributed to the shrinkage in Japanese exports and apparently a setback to globalization is the heightened trade friction with competitors. This was even compounded by the strengthening of the yen, which led to the deterioration in export earnings. The new strategy that the industry considered imperativ e was the internationalization of the automobile industry. Taking advantage of the timely diffusion of the use of advanced technology in the lean system of automobile production, Japanese automobile manufactures stayed ahead of the competition.   Information technology in Japan permeates other sectors that are supportive of the auto industry such as the financial sector which avails money for investment, as well as the steel industry which uses IT both for processing and for product innovation. According to OECD (1998), Japanese automobile manufacturing firms took measures to gradually replace simple automated devices with numerically controlled tools, industrial robots and flexible transfer machines (p.148). The adoption of this technology afforded the flexibility needed for cost effective production of small volumes while at the same time not compromising on quality. The concept of electronification is rapidly changing product technology. Product and development of new strategies coupled with the direction of research and development. Be sides some micro-electronics and IT-based innovation, these new technologies were also used outside Japan in  Ã‚   the United States and Europe and other component firms. Different from the United States though, the diffusion of this technology was faster in Japan and was gradually upgraded as the demand for product variety arose.   The use of the lean and the integrated system in retailing is one of the best innovations. According to OECD (1998) the use of computer integrated production systems has made production engineering capable of assembling sub-assembled components from suppliers with minimum adjustment to robots (p.144). Being ‘lean’, and having a microelectronics and IT-based system, the performance of the automotive industry changed radically, due to increased productivity,   lowered cost of production influenced by reduced labor requirements,   the improvement of the product quality and increased flexibility of automobile production. The Japanese competitive advantage also lay in their completely different system of producing and organizing automobile production, a system termed as lean production. The success of Japan was deemed as a second revolution, due to the fact that they replicated mass production which was introduced by Henry Ford. The kaizen principles, or the principles of constant improvement by employees at work, were deemed to be equally universal.   According top Hook and Hasegawa (2001), owing to the universalistic view that implied that any firm in the car industry could and should learn from the Japanese way in order to survive, drove the some German managers who were seeking to regain profitability to learn from the Japanese model (p.132). It has been noted that rationalization and restructuring efforts from early 1990s not only focused on introducing Japanese style management and organization practices, but it also became radical and far reaching and tended to monopolize restructuring discussions. Japanese organization model organizes the workforce into teams who are the subjected to intense training, and they have to change tasks as frequently as possible on the factory floor hence ensuring that they are flexible and versatile. The training and experience for multiple skills and greater in the labor force as OECD (1998) indicates, improves the motivation of the worker and tends to reduce absenteeism (p.149).   The difference in the approach to research and development between Japanese corporations and other firms is that worker suggestions are valued and workers contribute greatly to research and development. Hook and Hasegawa (2001) conclude Japanese economic success was vital in that it gave a decisive push for reform and served as an important instrument in the implementation of reforms in the German industry (p.136). The Japanese model of management was also adopted in other countries that Japan had out competed in the auto industry such as the United States and the United Kingdom. Many other emerging auto makers such as India, china, Russia, and other European and Asiatic countries are demonstrating the importance of successful globalization by adopting the Japanese production and management model. For Japan the 1970s were the height of the country’s economic upturn, with the high rise in exports to the rest of the then American-dominated free world. It is during these years that Japan ceased to be a debtor nation, and the balance of payments favored Japan due to manufacture of cars and electronic equipment such as radios. Shokinawa (2010) elaborates that the globalization effort occurred twofold: firstly it involved the expansion of local production capacity in industrialized nations of North America and Europe and secondly the extension of local production initiatives and cooperative division of labor to serve the populous china and south East Asian markets (p.59). The number of locally produced cars could soon rise to overtake the rate of production in the firms at home. The establishment of a production unit in the largest of Japan’s overseas automotive market was meant to not only supplement exports, but also a strategic environment where strategically import ant model types needed in America could be produced .the establishment of local production units in the United states is beneficial in that a new deal to increase the procurement of United states-made parts by Japanese auto makers has been signed. In reference to Shimokawa (2010), the strategy of globalization in North America has taken three dimensions: firstly   the localization of management at factory level, especially those that pertain to human resources development, training, evaluation and quality control activities, secondly the expansion of procurement to broaden   the relationship with local suppliers in order to increase the level of local content (p.60).   In addition, the localization of the research and development related activities, giving the hosting country’s experts the opportunity to be involved in the design and development of the auto mobiles. The globalization of the Japanese automobile industry in this context has resulted in the creation of job opportunities in the United States, and apparently, many United States employees are assuming an increasingly central role in the areas of production at the Japanese transplant operations. The standard of living is also elevated by the availability of quality and affordable automobiles which can be used to create more value in other sector of the economy. The purpose of moving production to a new location is to tap the advantages of cheap labor. This is a strategy employed to enter into new markets and market segments, while taking advantage to reduce the cost of key success factors. The impact of internalization of Japanese automobile industry has not been without challenges. Shimokawa (2010), shows that while the United States automobile industry deteriorated markedly in the 1980s in response to the effects of the first and second oil shocks in of 1973 and 1979 respectively, the Japanese automobile industry production levels reached 100 million units per year and became a strong international competitor, and as a consequence, there was increased protectionism in the United states and Europe (p.8).   The promotion and assistance of private manufacturers by the Japanese ministry of international trade and industry,   (MITI), attracted criticism from American businessmen, especially those involved in the stagnant and bloated American automobile industry claiming that Japan was employing monopolistic and other unfair trading practices. The promotion of local industries b the Japanese government was through the liberalization of the financial markets so that investors in the auto industry could access loans or could raise capital through the capital markets. In addition, the Japanese government imposed restrictive tariffs on imported products that competed with what Japan produced. Of primary significance was the accusation that Japan was restricting its markets, making foreign imports too costly to compete with Japanese domestic products, the main discontent being about agricultural products. Japan had subjected imports to overly restrictive inspections, quarantines and tariffs that were discriminative of foreign firms. Shimokowa (2010) argues that Japan employed the strategy of subsidizing its products with a view to  Ã‚   capturing the market share, and not to drive foreign manufacturers to bankruptcy as had been alleged (p.65). The prices of Japanese products abroad were cheaper than those of competing companies, the consequence of which was the accusation of Japan as having had intentions to destroy competition. Interestingly according to law (1991), the rise in demand in the United States and Europe for Japanese cars due to their high energy efficiency caused trade friction between the United Kingdom and France and Japanese companies. Subsequently, Britain asked Japanese companies to limit their share in the UK market to below 10 percent, while France requested them to maintain below 3 percent (p.104).   This move motivated Japan to establish car making units in these countries, since producing from within them will not attract criticism like when the cars are exported to these countries. In addition, despite the employees being union-free, Japanese transplants occasionally face the challenges of resolving disputes and handling complaints from local employees. The pre-dominant view point was that Japan achieved superior labor productivity as a result of lower wages despite the subsidized land cots. Shokinawa (2010) indicates that the corporation has embraced the challenge though, and conducts major annual surveys and three smaller surveys in order to find out the potential sources of dissatisfaction (p.63).Besides minimizing disputes in the corporation such initiatives will boost the morale and pride of the employees, hence will feel valued and appreciated by their employer. This approach can be used as a model in employee management in other corporations. International migration has also been a great challenge to globalization since illegal migrations erode the sovereignty of states.   According to Hook and Hasegawa (2001) with the rising globalization, there has been interplay among private market forces and Japanese society’s tolerance or otherwise of immigration and the governments efforts to regulate immigration to accord with or resist the forces of globalization (p.12). The free movement of goods and services is imperative for the process of globalization to be smooth. Even of more critical necessity for globalization is the flow of labor across political boundaries. The movement of people from one nation to another will facilitate the transfer of technology and expertise thus the host community has a long term benefit of gaining technological know-how.   In addition, the local community will benefit from the corporate social responsibility initiatives that the companies will be engaged with. The companies have also established programs through which employees can record their complaints anonymously by phone with the company pledging to respond to them. The use of third party to listen to employees’ complaints and implementation of the recommendations made, coupled with occasional roundtable meeting between employees and the management and the use of democratic avenues to involve employees in decision making activities in the company are helpful unbiased approaches in dispute resolution. At the same time, suggestion activities and quality controls have been used in other automobile firms, such as Honda. The quality control are incorporated into comprehensive efforts called voluntary improvement program, the objective of which is to find out how and why certain problems occur and to build strong foundations and disciplines that will act as models in solving problems of the same nature in future. Shokinawa (2010) iterates that companies also target to create a kind o f environment in which quality control becomes a natural and consistently used element of corporate culture (p.64). The negation of the lean production practices with a view to meeting the demands of the growing market through creation of new models and mass production of existing ones, worked against the industry evidenced by the sharp rise in fixed costs. This means that much investment was done on research and development. These advanced methods of dispute resolution in firms are the products of globalization and the quest for sustainable competitive advantage and developing a global brand name. In the process, the highest quality products are manufactured and the best customer care services are offered thus boosting the quality of life. The disadvantage with this though is that infant industries that may not have reached levels of competing favorably with multi nationals will be phased out of the market, or will be merger, acquired or taken over by multinational companies. In view of protecting infant industries, a country may be forced to enforce protectionism laws, scuttling the efforts to p romote globalization. Part of the challenges that auto makers face and have had to restructure in order to mitigate the growing adverse effect is global warming. Most affected are the developing countries that have experienced the adverse effects of droughts, famines, heat waves, rising sea levels and floods, all these attributable to global warming. According to Ijioui, Emmerich and Ceyp (2009), the fear of global warming in the year 2008 coupled with the drastic rise in raw material and oil prices triggered the response of the automobile industry (p.187).   The consumption of oil products began to change and preference shifted to more ecologically intelligent products. According to law (1991), the passing of the energy plan and bill rendering illegal the sale and manufacture of cars with energy efficiency under the stipulated standard, stimulated commercial demand for Japanese cars with high efficiency (p.104). Auto makers that seek sustainability in the global market have to comply with the green ene rgy requirements. Interestingly, due to the challenges of global warming in the recent years, the responsibility of automobile companies has expanded to include ways of controlling green house gas emissions. In reference to shimokawa (2010), the twenty- first century automobile industry faces challenges that go beyond the confines of automotive technology such as the prevention of global warming and commitment to zero emission as part of the collective effort on issues that pertain to global environment, eliminate wasted resources and environmental degradation through mass production, sales, disposal and the provision of safe transport system (p.4).   The emergence of these new challenges in the world and the commitment of the players in the automotive industry to curb their devastating effect on the global environment through corporate social responsibility are beneficial to society. Multinational companies in rich and developed nations take huge amounts of capital. Climate change conventions and the Kyoto protocol requires that companies in industrialized nations, which cannot cut the emission of green house gases, should establish clean energy projects in developing countries that a re suffering the devastating effects of climate change.   Government and civil society as well are responsible for mounting pressure on the companies that emit green house gases to take responsibility for their actions, failure to which punitive measures will be taken. Civil society in Japan has played a great role in highlighting the problems that crises in corporations can bring. Civil society can actively challenge crises that arise from corporate or government activities since it is independent of both the state and the market.   In reference to Schwartz and Pharr (2003), civil society in industrialized democratic nations, like Japan, are concerned with such issues as straight forward purchasing of goods and services in the market (p.13).   The civil society has always been involved in the political and social reinvigoration of Japan. The globalization of the automotive industry in Japan brought along with it relative weaknesses upon consumers and citizens. According to Bunker and cicantell (2007), the relative power of corporations over citizens and consumers as far as crises are concerned such as pollution are dictated by Japan’s political economy. This weakness of consumers and citizens resulted in high prices in domestic markets, formal and informal limitation on imports and the operation of cartels that restricted competition. They also protected inefficient firms and state agencies at the cost of the consumers. The existence of some sort of civil society groups acted to oppose unfair trade and to lobby for the promotion of fair trade both locally and globally. The work of civil society is to ensure that corporations are following the laid down business procedures and that they carry out their business in a manner that is ethical. Conclusion In summation, globalization is a means through which the world can realize high standards of production. As companies grow to the level of competing globally, focus on research and development is imperative if the products are to be competitive. Having looked at the case of Japanese automobile industry, it is evident that internal control and effective management and not the availability of low cost employees are what counts in the realization of efficiency and competitiveness. It is noteworthy that globalization presents a platform for leading and competitive firms to set standards that other firm in the same industry can emulate, thus raising not only the quality of the goods produced, but also the standard of living of the consumers. This is made possible since globalization breaks international boundaries and allows customers to access goods and services of their own choice. Globalization makes easier the process of technology transfer. Information technology is an agent of efficiency in almost every industry as its use results in the cutting of transactional costs. Use of robots in car making for example saves on manpower expenses and promotes efficiency as well. That a global company must be competitive means that the employees it absorbs must globally competitive. This means that globalization promotes the transfer of expertise through cross border establishment of production units. Exceptions though exist, in circumstances when a company may pay very low wages.   Although the setback of diminishing domestic industries exists, the flow of FDIs from rich nations to developing nations means that jobs are created for the citizens of the host country, thus elevating their standards of living. The removal of international trade barriers implies a wider market and hence a larger volume of trade for competitive companies. Therefore, the bottlenecks such as sour labor relations, industry protectionism, and unfair competition through limiting access to markets, hoarding of technology for the purposes of exploitation and limited access to some market due to limited technology should addressed. Policies and laws should be put in place to ensure that access to the benefits of globalization is a reality for, if possible, all nations. Civil society, which acts as an unbiased party in trade and government should be involved in making laws that will govern globalization. The presence of civil society in the context of globalization will help lobbying for the removal of oppressive labor laws, besides generally acting to ensure that fairness is observed.   For highly globalized companies, the creation of products and international operations should take place in autonomous organizational units, with specific market, legislative and technical know-how. The combined effect of a strong corporate culture, values, and eagerness to learn new things and flexibility are the preconditions for a globally competitive organization in the future. References Bunker, S. Ciccantell, P. (2007). East Asia and the global economy: Japan's ascent, with implications for China's future. Baltimore: JHU Press. Hook, G. Hasegawa, H. (2001). The political economy of Japanese globalization. London: Routledge. Ijioui, et al. (2009).Globalization 2.0: A Roadmap to the Future from Leading Minds. Heidelberg: Springer. Kenney, M Florida, R. (2004). 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